31 March, 2008

Jews Covering All the Bases

Posted by Socrates in Jewish organizations, Socrates, Zionism at 6:55 pm | Permanent Link

Which type of Zionism do you prefer: regular, or low-cal?:


  • 3 Responses to “Jews Covering All the Bases”

    1. smitty Says:

      This will allow leftist politicians to be pro-war without feeling the heat or loss of Jewish money.

    2. ThorrsHammer Says:

      Exactly. Because of the unpredictability of the outcome in November, they need an outpost in both camps. Old jews in new packaging…same primary focus as AIPAC: Israel at the center of things, opening “dialogs”, etc. etc.

      So where is the PAC that pushes for the crooks to be hanged and policies to be made EXCLUDING America from Israel’s problems? Oh yeah, there’s nobody with any money behind that position.


      Jewish Ritual Murder in Sumy, Ukraine?

      (March 31, 2008)
      By Andrei Yustschinsky
      Someone placed dozens of posters accusing Jews of ritually murdering Christian children in the town of Sumy, Ukraine, according to UCSJ’s Lviv bureau. The posters warn city dwellers that Jews murder the children in order to use their blood for Passover matzo, a fact known of what Jews like to call Blood Libel that sparked centuries of pogroms. “As before,” the posters read, “these dangerous people perform their rituals, kidnapping small male children and using their blood for the preparation of their kosher holy bread.” Jews are then accused of being behind recent disappearances and murders of children in the region.

      Andrei Yustschinsky reporting from Sumy, Ukraine

      Jewish Expulsions

      I have been kicked out of better places than this is the slightly pathetic thing to say as you leave. If it happens once it happens. Twice might be bad luck. Thrice starts to sound like a habit. When it gets to dozens there have to be reasons, good reasons. The records are out there in the history books. It just out of fashion to notice these things. If you do take notice you are liable to get abused for your pains. From some people it is a compliment. Here are two sources on the reasons: Context of Jewish Problems

      “Once is happenstance. Twice is coincidence. Three times is enemy
      Auric Goldfinger quote

      Expelled the Jews in 415 AD. He also expelled the Novations and robbed them to boot. Tolerance was not in fashion at the time.

      See:- http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/alexandria
      The Library of Alexandria was destroyed about this time. In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire, pagan rituals forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the bishop of Alexandria. See also Hypatia which mentions it en passant.

      554 Diocese of Clement [ France ] expelled the Jews. Unconfirmed.

      561 Diocese of Uzzes [ sic ] expelled the Jews. Unconfirmed.

      QUOTE ex The Catholic Encyclopaedia
      The first Bishop of Uzès historically known is Constantius, present at the Council of Vaison in 442. Other bishops were St. Firminus (541-53) and St. Ferreol (553-81)…..

      About 570, Sigebert, King of Austrasia, created a see at Arisitum (Alais) taking fifteen parishes from the Diocese of Nîmes. In the eighth century, when Septimania was annexed to the Frankish Empire, the Diocese of Alais was suppressed and its territory returned to the Diocese of Nîmes. At the request of Louis XIV, a see was again created at Alais by Innocent XII, in 1694. The future Cardinal de Bausset, Bossuet’s biographer was Bishop of Alais from 1784 to 1790.

      612 Visigoth expelled the Jews. King Sesbut [ 610 – 620 ] did it. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      642 Visigoth Empire
      They got aggravation about this time. Expulsion is not mentioned.
      Visigoth says:-
      The Visigoths scorned to interfere among Catholics but were interested in decorum and public order. The Arian Visigoths were also tolerant of Jews. Visigothic persecution of Jews had to wait for the conversion to Catholicism of the Visigothic king Reccared, and the same synod of Catholic bishops in 633 that usurped the Visigothic nobles’ right to confirm the election of a king declared that all Jews must be baptized.

      In January 587 Reccared renounced Arianism for Catholicism, the single great event of his reign and the turning-point for Visigothic Spain.

      The Council of Toledo, organized by Leander but convened in the king’s name in May 589 set the tone for the new Catholic kingdom. Leander and the Catholic bishops immediately instituted the program of forced conversion of Jews. Catholic history traditionally imputes these persecutions to the Visigothic kings.
      He turned down a bribe from the Jews.

      18 February 654 TOLEDO (Spain)
      Receswinth, King of the Visigoths, forced Judaizing Christians (converted Jews who still kept Jewish traditions) to swear loyalty to the Church or die. They were forced to spend Jewish and Christian holy days with the clergy, but could not be forced to eat pork. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      855 Italy See the Catholic Encyclopaedia
      In Italy, as early as 855, Louis II ordered the banishment of all Italian Jews, and his order failed to have the intended effect only because of the distracted condition of the realm at the time. In Germany, where “Jew” was synonymous with “merchant”, the emperors were long satisfied with exacting a special tax from their Jewish subjects; but finally Henry II (1002-1024) expelled from Mainz the Jews who refused to be baptized, and it is probable that his decree was applied to other communities.

      876 Sens, France. See Persecution of the Jews in Europe

      1012 MAYENCE [ aka Mainz, Germany ]
      Emperor Henry II expelled the Jews, probably in reaction to an anti-Christian pamphlet which was produced by a new convert to Judaism, Wecelin (a former Cleric and Deacon). The Jews were allowed to return the following year. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      There seem to have been no Jews in England until the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. He brought with him a handful of Jewish financiers from France. In the next generation, the communities grew much stronger and we find proper communities in several English towns. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education.

      1180 January 9, PHILIP AUGUSTUS (France)
      (The new king of France) arrested large numbers of Jews while his father, Louis VII, who tried to protect the Jews (though not always successfully) was still alive. All the Jews found in synagogues on the Sabbath were arrested. Philip agreed to free them for 15,000 silver marks. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1181 France EXPULSION OF JEWS
      From “France”, after which Philip confiscated their land and cancelled the debts owed them. Since Philip did not control the whole of France, many Jews moved to other areas. In 1192, after expanding his kingdom to areas which still had Jews, he decided to allow them to return to his whole kingdom – for a fee and under strict conditions. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1181 ABBEY OF ST. EDMUNDS (England)
      A dispute broke out between William the Sacristan (Sexton) of the Abbey and his associate Samson. The Jews and the local townspeople sided with William. Unfortunately, it was Samson who came to power the next year as Abbot. In 1190, after the Coronation riots, Samson demanded that the Jews should be placed under his authority rather than the Kings. When they refused, they were expelled under guard. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1181 ENGLAND
      King Henry II enacted the “Assize of Arms”, ordering that all weapons in possession of Jews be confiscated on the grounds that Jews, who were supposedly protected by the King, would not have any reason for owning arms. The weapons were turned over to the King’s forces. A direct result of this was that there was little they could do to protect themselves when riots broke out less then ten years later. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1181 EXPULSION OF JEWS (France)
      From “France”, after which Philip confiscated their land and cancelled the debts owed them. Since Philip did not control the whole of France, many Jews moved to other areas. In 1192, after expanding his kingdom to areas which still had Jews, he decided to allow them to return to his whole kingdom – for a fee and under strict conditions. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1255 Hugh of Lincoln drowned in a Jewish cess pool. A hundred Jews were hanged for their pains. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1278 England 269 Jews are hanged. 680 were nicked for thieving so most of them got away with it. King Edward came in for 16,500 pounds from fines and confiscations which was seriously useful money. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1288 Naples orders the first expulsion of Jews in Southern Italy. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1290 Edward I of England expelled the Jews because he was vicious or vice versa. Wikipedia blames Edward. See also 16,000 Jews are expelled

      1293 Destruction of most Jewish communities in the Kingdom of Naples, cradle of Ashkenazi culture in Southern Italy, accompanied by conversions of Jews. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1305 Pope Clement V is first pope to threaten Jews with an economic boycott in an attempt to force them to stop charging Christians interest on loans. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline Here we get a reason for their unpopularity.

      1306 France expelled the Jews. Philip IV of France confiscated all of their property. A year later he got a grip of the Knights Templar in France and robbed them too. See also Jewishhistory.org.il

      1306 January 21, FRANCE
      Phillip the Fair, needing funds after his war with the Flemish, issued secret orders to ready for the expulsion of the Jews and the confiscation of their property. Any Jews found after a given date were to be executed. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1306 July 22, PHILIP THE FAIR (France)
      Expelled the Jews from his lands after arresting all of them (on the day after the 9th of Av) and confiscating their property. Most Jews went to the next Duchy. Gradually, they were allowed to drift back.
      UNQUOTE See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1321 August 21, FRANCE
      Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells. This directly led to wide-spread and similar accusations during the Black Plague. This time, five thousand Jews were killed. At Chinon, 160 Jews were burned in a pit on an island outside of town. Eventually the King, Philip the Tall, admitted that the Jews were innocent. The island is still known as Ile de Juifs. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1322 June 24, CHARLES IV OF FRANCE
      Expelled all the Jews from France without the promised one year’s warning. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      1328 March 5, NAVARRE (France)
      After the death of Charles the Fair, Philip’s brother and successor, Pedro Olligoyen, a Franciscan friar, used the Jews as a scapegoat against French rule. All Jewish houses were pillaged then destroyed. Approximately 6000 Jews were murdered. There were 20 survivors. See Jewishhistory.org.il

      A street with the name of Via Scannaguidei (Kill the Jews Street) was noted and is still in existence today. See Jewishhistory.org.il – he does not say where but it is in Italian.

      1348 January 9, BLACK PLAGUE (Basel, Switzerland)
      In reaction to the Black Plague, six hundred Jews and the town Rabbis were burned at the stake. 140 children were forcibly baptized. The victims were left unburied, the cemetery destroyed and the synagogue turned into a church. The remaining Jews were expelled and not readmitted until 1869. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1348 June, NORTHERN SPAIN
      Black Plague massacres began in Barcelona and Cervera. Jewishhistory.org.il

      Bern, Chillon, Zurich. In the Castle of Chillon on Lake Geneva, Jews under torture admitted to being given poison to place in wells around Venice. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1348 September 26, POPE CLEMENT VI
      Issued a Bull contradicting the libel against the Jews. In it he stated that the Jews were suffering just like the rest of Europe. Other rulers issued similar denunciations, but to little effect. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1348 The Black Plague–Jews are accused of poisoning the wells. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline You cannot say that they were beloved of their hosts.

      1348 November 22, RIOTS REACHED BAVARIA AND SWABIA (Germany)
      Jews in eighty towns including Augsburg, Munich and Wurzburg were attacked. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1348-49 THE BLACK PLAGUE (Europe)
      One third of Europe’s population died from the Black Death (Bubonic plague). Though many Jews were among the dead, they were accused by local church leaders and tortured to confess that they had poisoned the wells (Chillon) in order to kill Christians. During the next few years – despite the protests of Pope Clement VI – over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities were destroyed as a direct result of these accusations. These included untold atrocities in cities such as Basel, Cologne, Strasbourg, Worms, Zurich and others. The plague, which originated in China, was spread for the most part by rats which came aboard ships from Asia to European ports. It is estimated that 25 million people perished within three years. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1349 January 16, BASEL
      The Guilds brought up charges against the Jews accusing them of poisoning the wells. Despite an attempted defence by the town council, 600 Jews together with the Rabbi were burned to death. One hundred and forty children were taken from their parents and forcible baptized ending a Jewish presence in the town. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1349 January 22, SPEYER (Germany)
      The Jewish community was destroyed. The Jewish inhabitants were either killed, converted or fled to Heidelberg. All their property – including the Jewish cemetery – was confiscated. http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/1340.htm

      1349 January-August, ATROCITIES (Germany)
      Spread from city to city up the Rhine; cities included Strasbourg, Worms and Cologne. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1349 Heilbronn (Germany) unconfirmed but not improbable.

      1349 February 22, ZURICH (Switzerland)
      Although the town council initially tried to protect the Jews of the town, they were forced to give in to the mob, resulting in the murder of many of the Jewish inhabitants. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1349 March 21, ERFURT (Germany)
      After a mob marched into the Jewish quarter carrying a flag with a cross, the Jews tried to defend themselves. Over a hundred Jews were killed and much of the ghetto burned. http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/1340.htm

      1349 August 23, COLOGNE (Germany)
      As the riots began, many of the residents took shelter in the synagogue. When it was attacked as well, the Jews inside set fire to it rather then be taken by the mob outside. Most of those who had not taken refuge in the synagogue were also murdered. Their property was confiscated by the church, with the municipality and the Count of Juelich each fighting over their share. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1349 August 24, MAYENCE [ Mainz ] AND BRESLAU (Germany)
      Some ten thousand Jews were massacred during the riots in two of the largest communities of Germany. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1349 September 29, ALBERT II (Austria)
      After an attack on the Jews at Krems, he forcibly ended the riots. Austria was thus one of the few places of relative security in Europe. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1349 Hungary. See Hungary 1349

      1356 GOLDEN BULL OF CHARLES IV (Germany)
      Alienated all rights of Jews. This led to the common practice of expelling the Jews from one district and, due to financial considerations, accepting them in another. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1359 FRANCE
      A defeat by the English at Poitiers led to a financial crisis that prompted re-admittance of Jewish financiers and Jews to France, this time for 70 years. Jewishhistory.org.il

      1388 Strasbourg See Strasbourg 1388 This allegedly authoritative source surveys in detail the history and forms of anti-Semitism over the past 2,000 years. It uses a list of events which has been lifted from a Christian source complete with spelling mistakes.

      1389 Czechoslovakia 3000 Jews are murdered in Prague Jewish boys annoyed a priest which caused major retaliation. The trigger was trivial. The resentment was major.

      1394 Germany unconfirmed

      1394 France and French Domains, by King Charles VI of France. He was a lunatic.

      1397 Jewish moneylenders are encouraged to settle in Florence. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1399 Anti-Jewish measures in Italy lead to establishment of Italian Jewish synods to ensure centralized leadership of community; synods are convened throughout 15th and 16th centuries to solve special problems See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1416 — Anti-Jewish preaching of Franciscans prompts delegates from Jewish communities to meet in Bologna and Forli to respond. Meeting result in pro-Jewish bulls by Pope Martin (1417-1431 —), who tries to control the Franciscans’ preaching. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1422 Austria unconfirmed but Vienna and Linz are for 1421. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education

      1424 Freibourg unconfirmed but 1428 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education

      1424 Zurich unconfirmed but 1436 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education

      1426 Cologne unconfirmed but 1424 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education

      1429 Pope Martin enacts bull providing a sweeping measure of protection of the Jews, which remains largely unenforced. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1432 Savory unconfirmed.

      1437 Cosimo de Medici, the Elder, grants the first formal charter to the Jews of Florence for money lending See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1438 Mainz unconfirmed

      1439 Augsburg see The Department for Jewish Zionist Education

      1442 Pope Eugenius IV issues an edict prohibiting: building of synagogues, money-lending for interest, holding public office, testifying against Christians. Jews respond by meeting in Tivoli and Ravenna, with no success; causes them to move to other areas of Italy See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1446 Bavaria unconfirmed

      1453 Franconis [ Franconia? ] unconfirmed.

      1453 Breslau See The Department for Jewish Zionist Education

      1454 Würzburg [ Bavaria ] unconfirmed.

      The Department for Jewish Zionist Education says:-


      In the wake of the Black Death, many of the Jews of Hungary were expelled. A general expulsion order attempted to get rid of the rest in 1360. Four years later the order was rescinded. This pattern of expelling the Jews and sometimes allowing their re-entry was repeated in these years for many Jewish communities in Europe. To give just a partial list of the localities which expelled their Jews over the next century and a half, the list includes; Strasbourg (1381), Lucerne (1384), Berne (1408 and again in 1427), Vienna (1421), Linz (1421) Cologne (1424), Freibourg (1428), Zurich (1436), Augsburg (1439), Bavaria (1442 and 1450), Moravia (1421 and 1454), Breslau (1453), Trent (1475), Peruggia (1485), Gubbio (1486), Geneva (1490), Ravenna (1491) and Campo San Pietro (1492).

      1459 Fra Mauro (a converted Jew) prepares a map placing Jerusalem at the centre of the world, a practice which was discontinued by the late Renaissance. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1462 Establishment of “Monti di pieta,” pity funds, by Franciscans to offer interest-free loans in direct competition with Jewish money-lenders; Jews lose business, and are therefore subject to expulsion See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1485 Vincenza (Italy) unconfirmed.

      31 March, 1492 • Ferdinand and Isabella’s Edict Against Spanish Jews

      Separation not having worked, the monarchs gave the Jews until July 31st to sell their goods and leave the country. They were forbidden to carry gold or silver out of the kingdom. Worse, although signed in March, the edict was not publicly announced until the end of April, so the Jews actually had only three months to convert their property to trade goods.

      In July 1492, the exodus began. When Columbus left on his famous voyage in August, he could not use the port of Cadiz because of the large numbers of Jews waiting to board ships in the harbour. Many Jews of Castile went to Portugal, where they were forced to pay a ransom to remain. Others went to Italy or the northern coast of Africa. Wherever they went, they were robbed.

      Spain’s economy paid for its mistreatment of the Jews: many had been skilled craftsmen. Sultan Bajazet of Turkey warmly welcomed those who escaped to his country. “How can you call Ferdinand of Aragon a wise king–the same Ferdinand who impoverished his own land and enriched ours?” he asked. He employed the Jew in making weapons to fight against Europe.

      1491 Jews of Ravenna expelled, synagogues destroyed; instigated by Franciscan and Dominican friars whose goal was expulsion of all Jews from Italy – Perugia-1485, Gubbio-1486. . . See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1492 — Sicily and Sardinia, as territories ruled by Spain, expel their Jews. The majority of refugees from the Spanish expulsion head for Portugal and Italy, specifically Venice, Leghorn and Rome, where they are protected by the pope. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1494 — France invades Italy; Jews of Florence and Tuscany expelled when the Medici fall from power; they return in 1513 — and bring the Jews back with them. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1495 — Charles VIII of France occupies Kingdom of Naples, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain. Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1495 Lithuania

      In 1454 anti-Jewish riots flared up in Wroclaw and other Silesian cities. They were inspired by the papal envoy, the Franciscan friar John of Capistrano. Though his main aim was to instigate a popular rebellion against the Hussites, he also carried out a ruthless campaign against the Jews whom he accused of profaning the Christian religion. As a result of Capistrano’s endeavours, Jews were banished from Lower Silesia. Shortly after, John of Capistrano, invited to Poland by Zbigniew Olesnicki, conducted a similar campaign in Krakow and several other cities where, however, anti-Jewish unrest took on a much less acute form. Forty years later, in 1495, Jews were ordered out of the centre of Krakow and allowed to settle in the “Jewish town” of Kazimierz. In the same year, Alexander Jagiellon, following the example of Spanish rulers, banished the Jews from Lithuania. For several years they took shelter in Poland until they were allowed back to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1503.
      UNQUOTE See http://www.polishjews.org/history1.htm

      1497 Portugal, racist king kicks the Jews out He was malicious and on the make according to the source. The Jews of course were totally innocent.

      1499 Germany unconfirmed.

      1506 Apr. 19. A marrano expresses his doubts about miracle visions at St. Dominics Church in Lisbon, Portugal. The crowd, led by Dominican monks, kills him, then ransacks Jewish houses and slaughter any Jew they could find. The countrymen hear about the massacre and join in. Over 2,000 marranos killed in three days. See History of anti-Semitism

      1510 Jews are expelled from Brandenburg, Germany. 38 Jews burned at the stake in Berlin.
      See History of anti-Semitism

      1510 Naples Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541. Were they using the wrong deodorant? See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1514 Strasbourg unconfirmed.

      1516 The first ghetto in Europe established in Venice. See History of anti-Semitism

      1519 Regensburg Martin Luther acts. See document Neupfarrplatz

      1519 Ratisbon [ Regensburg in German ], Germany.

      1519-1546 Martin Luther leads Protestant Reformation and challenges the doctrine of servitus Judaeorum “… to deal kindly with the Jews and to instruct them to come over to us”. Later in pamphlet About the Jews and Their Lies, 1544 he calls to “Set their synagogues on fire… Their homes should be likewise broken down… Their rabbis must be forbidden to teach under the threat of death”. His sermon Admonition against the Jews, 1546 contains accusations of ritual murder, black magic, and poisoning of wells. Luther recognized no obligation to protect the Jews. See History of anti-Semitism

      1527 Florence unconfirmed.

      1528 Three judaizers burned at the stake in the first auto da fe in Mexico City. See History of anti-Semitism

      1535 After Spanish troops capture Tunis, all the local Jews are sold into slavery. See History of anti-Semitism

      1540 Naples – 1541 Charles VIII of France occupies Kingdom of Naples in 1495, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain. Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline but they were readmitted in 1735.

      1542 Bohemia unconfirmed.

      1547 Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in or even enter his kingdom because they “bring about great evil” (quoting his response to request by Polish king Sigismund). See History of anti-Semitism

      1550 2 April 1550 Jews are expelled from Genoa

      1550 Dr. Joseph Hacohen is chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews are expelled. See History of anti-Semitism

      1551 Bavaria unconfirmed.

      1551 Pesaro 1555(?) unconfirmed.

      1553 Italy, Pope orders burning of Talmud Convinced [ wrongly? the source isn’t saying ] that the Talmud attacks Christianity, Pope Julius III burns thousands of volumes of Talmud in Rome, Bologna, Ferrara,Venice and Mantua.

      1554 Italian Jews in Ferrara to discuss the banning of the Talmud. They adopt a rabbinic ordinance, recognized by the government, which establishes an internal control over the printing of Hebrew books. Similar rules are later adopted in Padua, Poland, Frankfurt and Amsterdam.

      1554 Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome. See History of anti-Semitism

      1555 In Papal Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV writes: “It appears utterly absurd and impermissible that the Jews, whom God has condemned to eternal slavery for their guilt, should enjoy our Christian love.” He renews anti-Jewish legislation and installs a locked nightly ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forces Jewish males to wear a yellow hat, females – yellow kerchief. Owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians is forbidden. It also limits Jewish communities to only one synagogue. The Talmud is confiscated and publicly burned in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy. See History of anti-Semitism

      1555 Pope Paul IV issues a bull, cum nimis absurdum, bringing religious and economic restrictions to the papal lands, requiring all Jews to live in ghettos and restricting economic relations with Christians to the selling of used clothes.

      1556 Dona Gracia Mendes responding to persecution by Pope Paul IV against the Jews of Ancona, He leads an unsuccessful economic boycott against the port of Ancona favouring trade with Pisaro, which has accepted the Jewish refugees. The plan fails due to internal divisions in the Jewish community over fear of further persecution.

      1558 Recanti, Italy: a baptized Jew Joseph Paul More enters synagogue on Yom Kippur under the protection of Pope Paul IV and tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicts him. Soon after, the Jews are expelled from Recanti. See History of anti-Semitism

      1559 Pope Paul IV places the Talmud on the list of banned books, Index liborum prohibitorum. Popes Pius IV and Gregory XIII will later permit the printing of the Talmud, but allowing censorship of passages that are deemed insulting to Christianity; therefore, the Talmud is not printed in Italy. The last edition of the Index, 1948, still includes books written by Jews.

      1559 12,000 copies of Talmud burned in Milan. See History of anti-Semitism

      1559 Austria unconfirmed

      1561 Prague unconfirmed.

      1563 Feb. Russian troops take Polotsk from Lithuania, Jews are given ultimatum: embrace Russian Orthodox Church or die. Around 300 Jewish men, women and children were thrown into ice holes of Dvina river. See History of anti-Semitism

      1564 Brest-Litovsk: the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector is accused of killing the family’s Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and executed in line with the law. King Sigismund Augustus of Poland forbade future charges of ritual murder, calling them groundless. See History of anti-Semitism

      1567 Würzburg [ Bavaria ] unconfirmed.

      1567 Genoese Republic See http://users.commkey.net/fussichen/otdJews.htm

      1569 All Papal Territory except Rome and Ancona. See Jews In Italy

      1569 — Pope Pius V expels the Jews from the papal states, with the exception of Ancona and Rome. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org

      1570 —Establishment of the ghetto in Florence, locking in 86 Jews at night. The ghetto was established by Cosimo under pressure from the Church, in exchange for his receiving the title of Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1571, the ghetto swells to 500, as Jews from all over the Grand Duchy of Tuscany are compelled to live within the ghetto walls. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org

      1571 — The Venetian government, at war with Turkey, resolves to expel all Jews from Venice and the Adriatic Islands. Though the expulsion is not enforced, it reflects the impact of the Counter-Reformation and the papal willingness to sacrifice local commercial interests to doctrinal necessities. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org

      1571 Brandenburg unconfirmed. This hostile source mentions a Jewish atrocity there, It gives sources but only in book form. http://www.solargeneral.com/ja/ritualmurder/dersturmer.htm

      1582 Netherlands
      1580 – 1620 The Republic of the Seven Netherlands (Holland) became very tolerant of Jews. It became a haven for Jews fleeing the Inquisition. There Castellio’s arguments for religious freedom won out over the influence of Beza. 1582 When the Netherlands came under the rule of Cahrles V of Spain, the Jews were expelled.
      In the “Scots Confession” ch.18 Reformer John Knox upheld the original Calvinist tenet of intolerance, distinguishing “the Harlot” (Rome) and “the filthy synagogues” from “the true Kirk”. 1622 King Christian IV of Denmark and others invited Jews to reside in their lands, when the Thirty Year War raged in central Europe. See http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=836

      1590 King Philip II of Spain orders expulsion of Jews from Lombardy. His order is ignored by local authorities until 1597, when 72 Jewish families are forced to exile. See History of anti-Semitism

      1593 Brandenburg, Austria unconfirmed

      1593 —Pope Clement VIII expels the Jews living in all the papal states, except Rome, Avignon and Ancona. Jews are invited to settle in Leghorn, the main port of Tuscany , where they are granted full religious liberty and civil rights, by the Medici family, who want to develop the region into a centre of commerce. In 1600, 100 Jews live there, growing to 3,000 in 1689 and 5,000 at the end of the century. It is the only large Italian city without a closed ghetto. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org

      1595 —A synagogue is built in the north-western town of Piedmont, in the typical synagogue architecture of the Renaissance, within a courtyard. Concerned for their security, and following the prohibition of Jewish prayer to be heard by Christians, the Jews place the entrance away from the street. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org

      1597 — Nine hundred Jews are expelled from Milan, which is now ruled by Spain. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org

      1597 Cremona Unconfirmed.

      1597 Pavia Unconfirmed.

      1597 Lodi Unconfirmed.

      1597 Nine hundred Jews are expelled from Milan , which is now ruled by Spain. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      8 January 1598 Jews were expelled from Genoa.

      1603 Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, burned alive in Lisbon. See History of anti-Semitism

      1612 The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship. See History of anti-Semitism

      1614 Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the “new Haman of the Jews”, leads a raid on Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community. See History of anti-Semitism

      1615 King Louis XIII of France decrees that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death. See History of anti-Semitism

      1615 The Guild led by Dr. Chemnitz, “non-violently” forced the Jews from Worms. See History of anti-Semitism

      1619 Kiev unconfirmed

      1619 Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increases persecution against the Jews, forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. Many keep practicing Judaism in secret. See History of anti-Semitism

      1624 Ghetto established in Ferrara, Italy. See History of anti-Semitism

      1632 King Ladislaus IV of Poland forbids Anti-Semitic print-outs. See History of anti-Semitism

      1648-1655 The Ukrainian Cossacks lead by Bohdan Chmielnicki massacre about 100,000 Jews and similar number of Polish nobles, 300 Jewish communities destroyed. See History of anti-Semitism

      1654 Little Russia Twenty-three Jewish refugees from Brazil settle in New Amsterdam, forming the nucleus of what would be the largest urban Jewish community in history, the Jewish community of New York City.

      1655 Oliver Cromwell, proto-communist readmits Jews to England. See History of anti-Semitism

      1656 Lithuania unconfirmed

      1664 May. Jews of Lvov ghetto organize self-defence against impending assault by students of Jesuit seminary and Cathedral school. The militia sent by the officials to restore order, instead joined the attackers. About 100 Jews killed. See History of anti-Semitism

      1669 Oran (North Africa) unconfirmed

      1670 Vienna, by Emperor Leopold I. They were blamed for the fire in the Vienna Hofburg. See Habsburg Dynasty See also History of anti-Semitism

      1682 — Pope Innocent XII abolishes Jewish loan-banks in Rome. In 1683, he extends the ban to Ferrara and other Jewish ghettos under his authority. Prohibited from shop keeping and most trades and crafts, the Roman Jewish community shrinks, while the Jews of Northern Italy begin entering commerce and industry. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1683 French Possessions in America, by King Louis XIV unconfirmed

      1711 Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum (“Judaism Unmasked”), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern anti-Semitic polemics. See History of anti-Semitism

      1712 Sandomir [ aka Sandomierz ] Blood libel in Sandomierz and expulsion of the town’s Jews. See History of anti-Semitism

      1727 Russia Edict of Catherine I of Russia: “The Jews… who are found in Ukraine and in other Russian provinces are to be expelled at once beyond the frontiers of Russia.” See History of anti-Semitism

      1734-1736 The Haidamaks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews. See History of anti-Semitism

      1735 Italy Jews forced to choose between fines or public beatings

      1738 Württemberg KARL ALEXANDER (1733-1737) was Catholic, in contrast to the Lutheran estates…. Karl Alexander used the services of Jewish banker SÜSS OPPENHEIMER, who introduced MERCANTILIST POLICY and made enemies in the commissions. After the death of Karl Alexander he was arrested, sentenced in a show trial and executed (1738). No mention of expulsions but not unlikely.

      1739 Little Russia 1740(?) unconfirmed

      1740 Jews and Huguenots get to be citizens in England, then again in 1753 [ see Wikipedia ]

      1742 Dec. Elizabeth of Russia issues a decree of expulsion of all the Jews out of Russian Empire. Her resolution to the Senate’s appeal regarding harm to the trade: “I don’t desire any profits from the enemies of Christ”. One of the deportees is Antonio Ribera Sanchez, her own personal physician and the head of army’s medical dept. See History of anti-Semitism

      1744 Frederick II The Great (a “heroic genius”, according to Hitler) limits Breslau to ten “protected” Jewish families, on the grounds that otherwise they will “transform it into complete Jerusalem”. He encourages this practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issues Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: “protected” Jews had an alternative to “either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin” (Simon Dubnow). See History of anti-Semitism

      1744 Dec. Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa orders: “… no Jew is to be tolerated in our inherited duchy of Bohemia” by the end of Feb. 1745. In Dec. 1748 she reverses her position, on condition that Jews pay for readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen’s money). See History of anti-Semitism

      1744 Livonia
      On March 30, 1743, eighteen Jews were expelled from Dorpat, Livonia. Nevertheless, Isaac Marcus Solomon is met with in Riga in 1744, when the governor-general granted him permission to remain in the city for a further period of eight days. When, in Feb., 1744, the children and servant of the Jew David were expelled from the town, the only Jew left in Riga was Moses Meyer, who was allowed to remain because of his connection with a case before the Senate. For the following twenty years there is no record of Jews in the city. See the Jewish Encyclopaedia

      1745 Moravia In 1744 Jews were expelled from Bohemia and 1745 from Moravia under Empress Maria Theresa. 1753 Under the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna about 35,000 Jews were expelled from Russia. 1768 Russia’s expansion and the defeat of Poland confronted the Russians with large established Jewish communities, who had previously not been under their rule. Czarina Catherine II, the Great, established a territory, the so-called Pale of Settlement. It was to prevent the Jewish population from influencing Russian society and to be a buffer between Russia and its western neighbours. Jews needed special permits to travel outside the Pale. Persecutions of Jews continued violently in Poland, Lithuania and Russia, were Jews had fled from Crusaders and the Inquisition in western Europe. See http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=836

      1752. Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa introduces the law limiting each Jewish family in Bohemia to one son. See History of anti-Semitism

      1753 Kovad (Lithuania) unconfirmed

      1753 Parliament grants citizenship to Jews

      1759 A cardinal, later Pope Clement XIV, issues a report condemning blood libel accusations. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1761 Bordeaux unconfirmed

      1762 Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating “no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony.” See History of anti-Semitism

      1768 Haidamaks massacre the Jews of Uman, Poland. See History of anti-Semitism

      1772 Jews deported to the Pale of Settlement (Russia) See Jewish Encyclopaedia

      1774 Prague, Bohemia [ unconfirmed ] and Moravia [ unconfirmed ]

      1775 Warsaw
      Marshal Lubomirski’s guard invaded New Jerusalem [ a Jewish suburb], confiscated the merchandise found there, and demolished all the Jewish houses. The merchandise thus seized, which was valued at hundreds of thousands of gulden, was stored in the arsenal and was later sold at public auction, the proceeds being returned to the Jews. See Jewish Encyclopaedia

      1775 Pope Pius VI issues a severe Editto sopra gli ebrei (Edict concerning the Jews). Previously lifted restrictions are reimposed, Judaism is suppressed. See History of anti-Semitism

      1782 Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II abolishes most of persecution practices in Toleranzpatent on condition that Yiddish and Hebrew are eliminated from public records and judicial autonomy is annulled. Judaism is branded “quintessence of foolishness and nonsense”. Moses Mendelssohn writes: “Such a tolerance… is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution”. See History of anti-Semitism

      1784 Warsaw
      In the following year the Jews secured permission to rebuild their houses, but had meanwhile settled in large numbers in the city itself. On May 25, 1784, however, Marshal Mniszek issued an ordinance expelling the Jews from Warsaw and its environs, though it should be noted that the better classes of Polish society condemned the ill treatment of the Warsaw Jews by the Christian merchant and artisan gilds. This is clear from the following paragraph, for example, in the Warsaw periodical “Pamietnik Historyczo-Politiczny” (1783, p. 5): “What terrible spectacles must we witness in the capital on solemn holidays! Students and even adults in noisy mobs persecute the Jews and sometimes beat them with sticks. We ourselves have seen a gang waylay a Jew, stop his horses, and give him such a cudgelling that he fell from the wagon. How can we look with indifference on such a survival of barbarism?” See Jewish Encyclopaedia

      1790 May 20. Eleazer Solomon is quartered for the alleged murder of a Christian girl in Grodno. See History of anti-Semitism

      1789 Alsace
      The questions were real. At the very time of the [ French ] Declaration [ of the Rights of Man, 1789 ] anti-Jewish riots broke out in Alsace, the first and ominous indication that the secular nation-state might not end anti-Jewish sentiment, but merely secularize it into a new mode, to be given (in 1879) the name “anti-Semitism.” Later in 1789, speaking in a debate on the eligibility of Jews for citizenship, the Count of Clermont-Tonnerre spelled out in a fateful sentence the terms on which Jews could be included in the new political dispensation. “The Jews,” he said, “should be denied everything as a nation, but granted everything as individuals.” “It is intolerable,” he continued, “that the Jews should become a separate political formation or class within the country. Every one of them must individually become a citizen; if they do not want this, they must inform us and we shall then be compelled to expel them.” See Love, Hate, and Jewish Identity

      1790 “To Bigotry No Sanction, to Persecution No Assistance” (George Washington’s Letter to the Jews of Newport, Rhode Island) (http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/US-Israel/bigotry.html) See History of anti-Semitism

      1790-1792 Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco. See History of anti-Semitism

      1791 Catherine II of Russia confines Jews to the Pale of Settlement and imposes them with double taxes. Pale of Settlement (http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/History/pale.html) See History of anti-Semitism

      1798 — With the French expulsion of the pope from Rome, Jews are granted equal rights and all earlier special laws relating to their status are revoked. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1799 — As a result of the restoration of the old rulers in Italy, the Jews are again ghettoized and the restrictions against them are reimposed. See Italy and the Jews – Timeline

      1804 Villages in Russia unconfirmed

      1805 Massacre of Jews in Algeria. See History of anti-Semitism

      1808 Villages & Countryside (Russia) unconfirmed

      1812 Mar 11 Citizenship granted to Prussian Jews. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1815 Lubeck [ unconfirmed ]& Bremen unconfirmed

      1815 Franconia, Swabia & Bavaria unconfirmed

      1815 Mar 11 Citizenship granted to Prussian Jews.

      1816 Mar 06 Jews are expelled from Free city of Lubeck Germany. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1818 Nov 21 Russia’s Czar Alexander I petitions for a Jewish state in Palestine. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1819 A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighbouring countries: Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia known as Hep-Hep Riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany. See History of anti-Semitism

      1820 Bremes unconfirmed

      1820 Mar 05 Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbids Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1827 August 26 Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish boys under 18 years of age, known as the Cantonists, were placed in preparatory military training establishments for 25 years. Cantonists were encouraged and sometimes forced to baptize. See History of anti-Semitism

      1829 Nov 20 Jews are expelled from Russia’s Nikolayev Sevastopol.

      See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1835 Oppressive constitution for the Jews issued by Czar Nicholas I of Russia. See History of anti-Semitism

      1840 The Damascus affair: false accusations cause arrests and atrocities, culminating in the seizure of sixty-three Jewish children and attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Middle East. See History of anti-Semitism

      1843 Russian Border Austria & Prussia – all unconfirmed

      1844 Karl Marx praises Bruno Bauer’s essays containing demands that the Jews abandon Judaism, and publishes his work On the Jewish Question: “What is the worldly cult of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly god? Money… Money is the jealous God of Israel, besides which no other god may exist… The god of the Jews has been secularized and has become the god of this world”, “In the final analysis, the emancipation of the Jews is the emancipation of mankind from Judaism.” See History of anti-Semitism

      1851 Mar 07 Poll tax levied on Russo-Polish Jews entering Austrian Galicia ends. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1852 Sep 03 Anti Jewish riots break out in Stockholm. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1853 Oct 02 Austrian law forbids Jews from owning land. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1853 Blood libel in Saratov, Russia renews of the blood libels throughout Russia. See History of anti-Semitism

      1858 Edgardo Mortara, a six-year-old Jewish boy, is abducted in Bologna by Catholic conversionists, an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles. See History of anti-Semitism

      1860 Feb 01 First rabbi to open House of Representatives, Morris Raphall of New York NY. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression. [ Oppression? ]

      1862 Nov 09 US Grant issues orders to bar Jews from serving under him during the American Civil War.

      1862 Dec 17 General US Grant issues order #11, expelling Jews from Tennessee.

      1862 Area in the U.S. under Grant’s Jurisdiction by General Order No 11 Wikipedia does not approve. Nor did Abraham Lincoln. It was soon rescinded.

      1862 Polish Jews are given equal rights. Old privileges forbidding Jews to settle in some cities are abolished. See History of anti-Semitism

      1866 Galatz unconfirmed

      1866 Romania
      In 1866 a new sovereign, Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was elected and a new constitution adopted. Under the pressure of demonstrations organized by the police (during which the Choir Temple in Bucharest was demolished and the Jewish quarter plundered), the seventh article of the constitution, restricting citizenship to the Christian population, was adopted…

      In the spring of 1867 the minister of interior, Ion Bratianu, started to expel Jews from the villages and banish non-citizens from the country… Hundreds of families, harassed by humiliating regulations (e.g., a prohibition on building sukkot), were forced to leave the villages. Local officials regarded such persecution as an effective method of extorting bribes. See Jewishvirtuallibrary.org

      1871 Speech of Pope Pius IX in regards to Jews: “of these dogs, there are too many of them at present in Rome, and we hear them howling in the streets, and they are disturbing us in all places.” See History of anti-Semitism

      1871 Apr 16 German Empire ends all anti-Jewish civil restrictions. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1878 Adolf Stoecker, German anti-Semitic preacher and politician, founds the Social Workers’ Party, which marks the beginning of the political anti-Semitic movement in Germany. See History of anti-Semitism

      1881 Apr 25 250,000 Germans petition to bar foreign Jews from entering Germany. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1881 Apr 27 Pogroms against Russian Jews start in Elisabethgrad. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1881 May 05 Anti-Jewish rioting in Kiev Ukraine. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1882 Apr 13 Anti-Semitic League forms in Prussia. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1882 May 15 May Laws-Czar Alexander III bans Jews from living in rural Romania. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1882 Sep 10 First international conference to promote anti-Semitism meets in Dresden Germany (Congress for Safeguarding of Non-Jewish Interests). See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1897 Dec 12 Anti-Jewish violence breaks out in Bucharest Romania. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1898 Oct 01 Jews are expelled from Kiev Russia. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1900 Sep 19 (Dreyfus) President Loubet of France pardons Jewish army captain Alfred Dreyfus, twice court-martialled and wrongly convicted of spying for Germany. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1901 Apr 29 Anti Semitic riot in Budapest. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1905 May 26 A pogrom against Jews in Minsk Byelorussia. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1905 May 29 Pogrom against Jewish community in Brisk Lithuania. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

      1917 Jaffa and Tel Aviv, by Turkish Authorities – unconfirmed

      1917 The Balfour Declaration proclaimed British support for Jewish settlement in Palestine.

      1919 Bavaria (foreign born Jews) unconfirmed

      1937 Germany Jews were being encouraged to leave. This policy continued.

      1938 – At the end of the year the persecution of the Jews intensifies. Over the days of 9-10 November, the Nazis orchestrate the Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) pogrom. Jewish shops, houses and synagogues across Germany are burnt by both the Schutz-Staffel (SS) – the ‘Blackshirts’, Hitler’s personal guard – and the general population. Ninety-one Jews are killed. Thirty thousand are arrested and deported…. Hitler is named ‘Time’ magazine’s man of the year. See Adolf Hitler

      1943 Jews In Italy
      By 1922 the process of assimilation was almost complete. Of course, it was at this time that the Fascists came to power. At the beginning many Jews supported them, even participating in the March on Rome. However, in 1929 Mussolini passed the Falco Laws. These laws contradicted article 8 of the Italian constitution that allowed freedom of religion….. In 1938 Mussolini produced his Manifesto of Italian Racism…….. . Jews were expelled from all public services, such as the army and also public schools.

      In 1940 Mussolini joined the war in alliance with Hitler and ordered the fascist army to ransack the ghettos. The confinements and deportations began in 1943.

      E. .E. O Hungary Widespread Anti-Semitic Riots on University Campuses
      1929 C.E. L

      1948 War of 1948
      The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, known as the Israeli War of Independence or al-Nakba, 1948-1949, began after the British withdrawal and the declaration of the State of Israel on May 15, 1948. Arabs had formally rejected the United Nations Partition Plan of November 1947, which proposed establishment of an Arab and a Jewish state in Palestine. Jewish and Arab militias had begun a campaign to control territory both inside and beyond the partition-designated borders. Joint Jordanian, Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese and Iraqi troops invaded Palestine, and fought to destroy the nascent Jewish state. On May 15, 1948, the Arab League Secretary General Abdul Razek Azzam announced the intention to wage “a war of extermination and a momentous massacre which will be spoken of like the Mongolian massacres and the Crusades.” (Benny Morris, Righteous Victims p.219) About 2/3 of Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled by Israeli forces from the territories which came under Jewish control (see Palestinian Exodus); Arabs also expelled Jews from the territories which came under their control. In addition, many Arab countries’ Jewish populations fled due to anti-Jewish sentiment and, in some cases (e.g. Iraq) legal oppression (see Immigration to Israel from Arab lands). About 700,000 Palestinians (estimates vary from 520,000 to 957,000 [1] (http://www.arts.mcgill.ca/MEPP/PRRN/proverview.html)) and estimated 600,000 to 900,000 [2] (http://www.jimena-justice.org) Jews became refugees. In a few cases, (e.g. in Morocco) local Arab governments encouraged Jews to stay, and some Jewish leaders (e.g. in Haifa) encouraged Arabs to stay. Jewish refugees were absorbed by Israel; Palestinian refugees were neglected by most Arab nations, which by some were blamed for the poverty and hatred prevailing in some Palestinian camps, while others blamed Israel for their expulsion. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East was established to alleviate their condition. The fighting ended with signing of the Rhodes Armistice, but only two states eventually signed a peace agreement with Israel: Egypt (1978) and Jordan (1994).

      Errors & omissions, broken links, cock ups, over-emphasis, malice [ real or imaginary ] or whatever; if you find any I am open to comment.

      Email me at Mike Emery. All financial contributions are cheerfully accepted. If you want to keep it private, use my PGP Key. Home Page

      Updated on Thursday, 22 March 2007 10:15:31