Kurt Tucholsky: GERMANY, GERMANY OVER EVERYTHING
The collection of texts of Kurt Tucholsky with assemblies of John Heartfield appeared 1929. Tucholsky a " political Baedeker " published four years before Adolf Hitler authorization to Germany, a "picture book" to the situation of state and nation. "Germany, Germany over everything", that with a "toerichten verse of a grossmaeuligen poem" overwritten book, ended after one in their Radikalitaet to today singular criticism at Germany with the confession: ", we love this country." Through the book also a second "Dolchstosslegende " is disproved whereafter "the intellectual ones" of the Weimar Republic by loyalty lacking in relation to the recent democracy of Hitler party men the way to power would have smoothed; the opposite is the case: Already 1920 had Alfred Doeblin , walter Hasenclever , Paul carouses (1881-1946), Tucholsky and others in a "German reaction yearbook" before nationalistic activities warned; the envelope of their Anthologie showed a swastika spider lauernde on booty.
It concerned to Tucholsky in the year of the world economic crisis with its Germany book as effective an influence of voter masses as possible: against German militarism, against social injustice and class law, against new German chauvinistism as well as against incapable "material politicians" all Couleur. Tucholskys commitment in humanistischen, socialist and pazifistischen organizations, which left it temporarily even its deep dislike against groups and associations overcoming, were sufficient for the successful journalist endeavored around political effect not longer. Differently than "Rhine mountain. A picture book for fallen in love one "should not be new" picture book "to amuse, but that Germany for meditation to call, which stood at the assembly-line, worked in the department store or sat at the typewriter.
A means for this saw Kurt Tucholsky in literarily commentated Dokumentarfotografie, which already applied its interest since 1912. Own texts - illustrates by photos and these for their part illustrating - had appeared already, as it 1928 the "worker to pictorial newspaper" (AIZ) its cooperation assured. Thus approximately fifty agitatorische, partly couplethafte poems for the AIZ and the anthology "red signals" developed (1931); from this the idea resulted to "Germany, Germany over everything". Over co-operation with John Heartfield and its common concept wrote Tucholsky 1930: "it depends on it, the photography - and only this still completely differently to use: as underlining of the text, as funny confrontation, as ornamentation, as confirmation - the picture should not be any more self purpose." The volume printed in soon a starting edition already out of print of 20.000 copies was the political summary of a sensitive individualists and a radical intellectual one, which had placed themselves consciously against the side of the underprivileged persons, without rights ones and exploitations. When communist functionaries at it criticized the citizen and beautiful spirit, Tucholsky countered: "good a suit after measure than a convicition of the bar."
"Germany, Germany over everything" is a provokantes album to the Weimar Republic. As slogan the volume the sentence from Hoelderins "Hyperion" is "came in such a way I under the Germans" placed in front. Singularly in the German literature between the world wars Germany book is on the one hand the level of the individual texts, of which many lost to today nothing at political explosiveness, on the other hand the variety of the literary forms, beside twenty poems and Chansons at Tucholskys ("lockout "; "start") pointed captions ("democracy") and provokante Fotostories ("statistics"; "never alone"). Partially colloquial for Tucholsky () Monologe and discussions ("Mr. Wendriner are characteristic buys "; I am a murderer"), a Dramolett to the German law ("resumption") as well as Aphorismen, Parodien and parabolas ("fire-brigade"); that volume contains satire in verse and Prosa ("Goetzen of the Maigoto negroes"), in addition classical feuilletons ("Treptow"), culture-critical essays (to everyday culture and architecture), polemiken, reports, reviews and theatre reports ("the link philosopher"). "Germany, Germany over everything" moves itself forward the entire spectrum of literary journalism, like it during the twenties owing to Erich Kaestner , walter Mehring (1896-1985), Joseph Roth (1894-1939) and Alfred (1873-1955) as literary form to establish could.
The majority that scarcely hundred photo text assemblies argues with excrescences of a class company, which in Berlin and other metropolises had led to glaring social contrasts. Tucholskys became famous rough cradle song "start". Nearly likewise many texts are concerned with militarism and nationalism, the end of war and democratic transformation without prejudice to had almost outlasted. The "nation Offiziersbur" calls Tucholsky a short Prosatext to a photo, which shows militaristisch out and straightened young people.
A third range of topics was concerned with the failed revolution of 1918/19 , monarchistic activities and consequence-fraught lack of the first German republic, which gave itself democratically, actually however deeply in the empire was rooted. In "Central German rebellion" complains Tucholsky the easement of university-formed proletarians on, who pull as to emperor Zeiten against their-same to field. Vehemente of attacks directed the lawyer attained a doctorate also against the inhumane iurisdiction of German courts. His poem "German judges of 1940" works today like a literary vision of Ungeist and people menschenverachtung of National Socialist lawyers ("we sit in twenty years/with zerhacktem face/and robes/over you court/would then become wir's you would point/to consulting hours and offices.../it have you to duck, to be silent...").
Further republic-hostile Relikte out emperor Zeiten is for Kurt Tucholsky national church, bureaucracy, bureaucracy as well as Burschenschaften and clubs and societies, with which he argued several times; its representation of the German postal service appears nearly timeless, "for an inexplicable reason". Rather as maintenance SAM loosening understood Tucholsky its texts to contemporary theatre, literature, kabarett, architecture and leisure activities (Week end). Tucholsky had one of its largest book successes with "Germany, Germany over everything", although the association of trade had tried to implement a boycott of the book with all means.
(Kindlers new literature encyclopedia, Kindler publishing house, Munich.)